The Scientific Method why is the scientific method important




The Scientific Method:

Hi, today we’re going to talk a little bit about the scientific method. So this is a method that scientists use to support or just prove a hypothesis.  Scientists develop their knowledge by observation and experimentation. This might be something you’ve done yourself say you have a flashlight.  

The flashlight breaks if you want to figure out how to fix a flashlight. You can take it apart and try to figure out what’s wrong with it. You can take out the batteries and try new batteries. If that doesn’t work you can always try to take out the light bulb and replace it.

So what you’re doing is basically making an observation. My flashlights broke and you’re experimenting to see which of those pieces is actually going to restore. Your flashlight observation can lead to ways to approach experiments. So you can use inductive reasoning which goes from specific information or specific cases. To very general principles so for instance if I drop something on the ground.

who invented the scientific method:

If I drop something from my hand it’s going to fall to the ground. If I go to the top of a building and I drop something like a penny it’s going to fall to the ground. I go up in a hot air balloon and I drop something it’s going to fall to the ground. So I’m basically looking at these specific cases and I’m going to make a general.

I’m going to find it as a general principle behind that and of course, that is the law of gravity anywhere on earth. I drop something it’s going to fall to the ground because of gravity. You can also use deductive reasoning. So this is looking at a general principle and following it down to a specific conclusion.

So for instance that might be, I just read a book on parasites. Parasites can change their host’s behavior so scientists can kind of look at some parasites. In general and then they can kind of work their way down to one organism. Say we’re going to look and see if parasites can change behavior in zebrafish so those are two ways.

who invented the scientific method:

That you can look at things using this type. So the scientific method most people think it’s like a series of steps like do. Step one, step two, step three, but the scientific method is really more like a cycle where you have a hypothesis. You can use deductive reasoning to get to a reasonable prediction. Say zebrafish that have blood flukes are going to be less likely to mate successfully.

Then you’re going to test your prediction so you might breathe a bunch of super fish in a lab. You know cut up in a few and see how many parasites. They have and see how many babies they’ve fathered. Then you can use inductive reasoning to come up with another hypothesis.

So you can say that the blood flukes don’t kill their hosts until the very end. So they actually both zebrafish the ones that are infected and the ones that aren’t infected by these. Parasites have an equal amount of chance of success at reproduction. You can start anywhere in the cycle as a scientist.

who invented the scientific method:

Make observation first or you can be working on an experiment and have a question come up at the very end. A really important thing in science is being able.

To distinguish between a hypothesis and a theory because in our everyday language. We actually use theory as well as a regular everyday term like.

Oh you know that’s a conspiracy theory so here’s a scientific definition of a hypothesis and a theory. So you can get them correct a hypothesis is an educated guess based on observation. This can be tested by experimentation.

The Scientific Method:

How can I tell what kind of energy is coming from the Sun that can be tested by experimentation? You can hypothesize most of the energy coming from the Sun is UV rays. A theory is a coherent group of thoroughly tested hypotheses commonly regarded as correct. This can be used as an explanation for a certain phenomenon.

So the theory of again it’s been tested. So often it is all actually a law it’s a law of gravity so every time I drop something and it falls to the ground. I know that there is an explanation for that’s been tested over and over and over again. Every time that experiment has been tried and tested. It comes out the same way no matter what so that’s the difference between a hypothesis and a theory all right. We’re going to get into a specific example of the scientific method.

So in 1856, a doctor named Semmelweis decided that he was going to try to do something. To help his patients he worked in a hospital and he was noticing that in the maternity ward. Where women were giving birth a lot of them a high percentage of them. Were dying of well they called childbed fever. So he was observing that childbirth deaths were five times higher from doctors than nurses.

scientific method steps and definitions:

He said that this is due to childbed fever so again here’s this ordinary question. Why do people get sicker these women why do they get sicker. When they’re attended by doctors than by nurses he also observed. Those doctors often did autopsies before attending of birth. These days we didn’t have things like rubber gloves or we didn’t even know that there were such things at germs.

So he made these observations the next thing he did was he made a hypothesis. He said that doctors transmit what he called cadaveric matter from the corpses to their patients. Then his prediction after all he made these observations was that if doctors washed their hands. It would eliminate cutover matter and reduce fever deaths so this is something.

scientific method steps and definitions:

That he could actually test he could have doctors wash their hands or not wash their hands. Then see if the patients got sick with this childbed fever in terms of setting up your experiment. There are a couple of things you need to know first of all you need to know what a control. Control is a troll is a group where nothing changes. So in this experiment Semmelweis heads some doctors not to wash their hands.

So nothing changed the doctors were still doing autopsies. Still coming and attending these births then he had two kinds of variables and an independent variable and a dependent variable. The independent variable is something that as an experimenter and scientist. You change so if I’m growing plants I can change the amount of water I give them. I can change the amount of sunlight they’re exposed to.

scientific method in research:

In this experiment, he decided that he was going to change whether doctors wash their hands or not. So he had the doctors wash their hands of cat vatic mater and the dependent variable is what you measure for results. So what is changing in response to the handwashing well? It’s the number of patients who are getting or not getting childbed fever.

An important thing to note is that if you’re noticing something like doctors not washing their hands. People getting sick you have to make sure that whatever they seem linked. These things but they might not cause each other eight might not because being right like. You’re lucky to pair of socks to a test and you get an and every time.

You wear them after that you get an A right you might start to think. There’s something special about your socks. You might wear them anytime you have a test ball. Just because something seems to connect doesn’t necessarily mean that. It does like for instance here’s a graph of rising temperatures. The number of pirates just because those things can relate doesn’t necessarily mean. That higher temperature causes more pirates another good. An example of this is in 1918.

scientific method example:

In 1918 there was a huge flu this is a huge fool to kill like a third of the people. On this planet and people were terrified it is coming back. So they gave you everyone a vaccine and unfortunately, some people started to die. The drug companies were actually used for this. They went to court a huge lawsuit battle ensued now here’s the thing people would die no matter.

If they got the vaccine or not but people are so freaked out by the fact. That there might be side effects of the vaccine. They started linking getting the vaccine to dying. So even though those things were correlated or connected. That does necessarily mean that they cause each other. The vaccine doesn’t necessarily cause death.

The Scientific Method:

So this is an important one to remember correlation does not always equal causation all right. So some of my state his experiment he noticed then that child Bette childbed fever deaths were absent. When doctors washed their hands. He did this experiment repeatedly a number of times. The conclusion he drew from this is that transmission of the categoric matter was the thing that caused childbed fever.

scientific method example:

Therefore his hypothesis was supported. So we did this a numerous amount of times. He noticed that as soon as the doctors wash their hands less and fewer people were getting childbed fever. We’re dying from it okay if the hypothesis is not supported. So say you’re doing an experiment and your hypothesis isn’t supported it’s not the end of the world.

It doesn’t mean the experiment was a failure because you still learn something from it. Just means that a new hypothesis should be made and tested. So again you can ask a question do an experiment find an answer ask another question okay it’s not the end of the world all right for a little review. So the basic steps and by steps I mean this can be a cycle.

You can start anywhere you make an observation you come up with a hypothesis. Make a prediction as to what will happen when you perform an experiment. You perform the experiment you collect your data right. Collect all your data and you analyze it to see. What happened when you come up with a conclusion from that the nice part is when you come up with a conclusion.

scientific method example:

You can then go on and make another observation and start the process all over again. The scientific method is a process of observing natural phenomena which leads to asking questions. Offering explanations that can be scientifically tested. So it’s really a process and when you’re in this class you’re going to be learning. How to do this process very well. So please remember the steps of the scientific method. Make sure you also remember what deductive and inductive. The reasoning is because we will talk about them in class see you next time.

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